ESS Debate Timeline and Key Players (1977-2015)

What is the origin story of the debate on the Eternal Subordination of the Son?

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For a while I’ve wanted to assemble an informal bibliography and chronology of the ESS controversy. Reading a book that mentions the ESS debate as starting in 2016 prompted me to look back to my notes from that time.

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There’s no doubt that in 2016 a war of words on ESS did indeed fill up the blogosphere. That was a unique period when blogging was still a major thing and social media had not yet exploded to the grand scale it occupies now.

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Yet, the ESS debate was already an active and vigorous debate academically and theologically before 2016. The difference in 2016 was that the topic moved to the blogosphere in a new way. Simply put, Rev. Dr. Liam Goligher’s pointed words in critique of ESS brought awareness of the error to other audiences. His analysis was clear and grounded. That was useful addition. The topic itself and the debate was not a new thing. It had already been circling the globe.

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The ESS debate, as you’ll see below, had been central matter of debate for a few decades prior to 2016. By 2016 many books and articles had already been published in the US, Britain and Australia. A number of high profile lectures and essays came from both major sides of the ESS question before 2016. In fact, by late 2011 a well-researched multi-author statement warned against ESS. “An Evangelical Statement on the Trinity” was formulated in such a way, whether intentionally or not, to function as a broad blueprint for how things would unfold in the years ahead. The difference that June 2016 saw in the ESS debate was how it moved to the blog platform.
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It was clear by early 2015 that the battle lines had already been coalescing. There was a stream of pro and con coming from both Complementarians and Egalitarians. There were Complementarians against ESS and for it and there were also Egalitarians against ESS and for it. That much was evident even before the blog duels of 2015.

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So, I looked back at my notes to see what timeline and list of publications would unfold. I’ve noticed over the last half decade a few chronologies which have aimed to highlight key players or blogs involved. Most of these timelines have noticeable gaps in the info they provide. Other timelines are intentionally limited in their scope.

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The Thinking of Things chronology starts with 10 March 2009 and goes through 11 July 2016 listing only blog posts, no books or articles. The Bring the Booksomnibus” chronology starts with September 2004 and goes through 8 July 2016 listing mostly blog posts, one book and a few articles. The Books At A Glance chronology starts with 8 May 2015 and goes through 16 June 2018 listing mostly blog posts. Alastair Roberts offered a helpful timeline which served not as an exhaustive chronology, but as an in-the-moment analysis of the debate in 2016. Roberts followed that abbreviated timeline with an survey of literature on ESS, pro and con. Worth noting is that several of the resources Roberts lists were published prior to the 2016 escalation. 

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A few more distinctions and details are worth observing.

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The ESS conversation has naturally located within the academy. The ESS debate per se is one that occurs at the convergence of Scripture exegesis, Systematic Theology, Historical Theology, Dogmatic Theology on the Trinity and philosophical questions related to Theology Proper. Although the ESS position may have begun as a way to address “gender roles,” so called, the defense of ESS and critique of ESS soon became the purview of the academy, its seminaries, theologians and pastor-scholars. Most believers are not needing to be discipled in the metaphysical foundations for a classical theistic delineation of ad intra trinitarian relations de Deo uno with contra-distinctions to Rahner’s Rule.

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In other words, the ESS debate is not merely an application question regarding biblical manhood and womanhood. Yet, some of the female Complementarian critics of ESS, though correctly rejecting it, have attempted using their stated opposition as a major fulcrum to move away from authoritarianism. Opposition to ESS by itself is not enough to turn aside authoritarian practices. This inadequate approach has moved these Complementarian critics toward mixing Egalitarian theory with their own. Ironic. They have made their own unique miscalculations regarding the Persons of the God’s triunity. I may address those at a later time.

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Plainly stated, confronting the error of ESS is not merely about the question of how leadership or how ordinary discipleship should be done between men and women. It’s important to keep in mind that the ESS matter relates directly to other key doctrinal affirmations (a few of these are noted in the timeline below). Other doctrines relating to the ESS debate include the Eternal Sonship of second Person of the Trinity, the doctrine of Eternal Generation, clarity on Christian classical theism and its sub-categories such as the Doctrine of Divine Simplicity (DDS). These still need more explication for contemporary audiences.

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To illustrate this, consider Divine Simplicity. Despite how important DDS is to the ESS question it went virtually unmentioned until recently. The Kantzer Lectures (2011) by Bruce McCormack is a prime instance of a notable discussion on DDS in the timeline before 2016. Scott Oliphint addressed some ideas in how DDS relates to ESS, but settled on a notion that God’s attributes “accrue” to him (see his chapter 10 in One God In Three Persons). DDS is vital to any sub-topic in Theology Proper, yet little was said about it before 2016 on this matter. In recent years more attention has been given to DDS with the added awareness that DDS goes to the core principles of why ESS doesn’t fit in orthodox trinitarianism. The timeline compiled here should, I trust, signal that we have more work to do in expounding the fullness of the Church’s orthodox trinitarian teachings. 

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Thus, the need of the hour is for the Church and its people to grow up into a richer and creed-guided appreciation for the triune doctrine of its God. The man/woman and authority/submission topics are just a couple within other larger loci needing our attention. Among these Theology Proper excels in giving the saints studied wisdom for mapping other doctrines and practices. For example, theological anthropology assumes an interest in Theology Proper. Furthermore, if worship is the Church’s most important practice then distinctions between truth and error on Theology Proper will nurture the souls of its people to that end. 

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What follows is the first entry from my notes on publications and events before 2016 on the ESS debate. As you will see the controversy was well underway by the early 2000s. After this post is published I intend on adding publications, posts, etc. from 2016 to the present. I welcome your feed back in updating these entries whether corrections or additional names or resources. You can send suggestions or corrections to the email on the Contact Page. Thank you in advance. My intention in this first entry (5-19-20) is to give a perspective on how the ESS debate had been playing out prior to 2016. As far as I can tell this is the most complete online list of resources re: ESS for that period (except for what one might find in a bibliography of an academic monograph).

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The ESS debate timeline prior to 2016

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1967 – C. S. Lewis, Walter Hooper, ed., “Christianity and Literature” Christian Reflections(quote: “…from rung to rung of a hierarchical ladder… What is perhaps most startling in this picture is the apparent equivalence of the woman-man and man-God relation with the relation between Christ and God, or in Trinitarian language, with the relation between the First and Second Persons of the Trinity.”)

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Book 1977 – George Knight, The New Testament Teaching Regarding the Role Relationship of Men and Women, 55–56. Though there are documented variations on views regarding subordination of the Son before Knight’s book, it seems that he was the first contemporary to articulate a view of subordination in the Trinity as the fundamentum of subordination of women to men. 

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1990 – Robert Letham, “The Man-Woman Debate: Theological Comment”, Westminster Theological Journal 52: pp 65-78. 

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Book 1991 – Colin E. Gunton, The Promise of Trinitarian Theology, p 11. (quote: “persons are mutually constituted”)

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Book 1991 – Piper & Grudem, John & Wayne, Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood: A Response to Evangelical Feminism. pp 104, 130, 163, 257, 394.

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Book 1991 – Catherine LaCugna, God for Us: The Trinity and Christian Life, p 26.

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Book 1993 – Ted Peters, God as Trinity: Relationality and Temporality in Divine Life. pp 54-55.

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Book 1993 – George W. Zeller co-authored The Eternal Sonship of Christ – A Timely Defense of this Vital Biblical Doctrine with Renald E. Showers (Loizeaux Brothers; 2007 reprint by Wipf & Stock)

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Book 1994 – Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology, pp 230-257. (Grudem describes the Trinity as “eternal equality in being but subordination in role,” and thus “the role of commanding, directing and sending is appropriate to the position of the Father,” and “the role of obeying, going as the Father sends, and revealing God to us is appropriate” to the Son.)

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Book 1995 – Millard Erickson, God in Three Persons: A Contemporary Interpretation of the Trinity, p 333.

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1996 (Dec) – Rebecca Groothuis, Good News for Women: A Biblical Picture of Gender Equality 

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1997 (March) – Gilbert Bilezikian, “Hermeneutical Bungee-Jumping: Subordination in the Godhead” JETS 40/1, pp 57–68. PDF

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Book 1998 – David S. Cunningham, These Three Are One: The Practice of Trinitarian Theology, p 112. (“asymmetry” in the Trinity)

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1998 (Spring) – Sarah Coakley, “Living into the Mystery of the Holy Trinity: Trinity, Prayer, and Sexuality” Anglican Theological Review.


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1999 – “The Doctrine of the Trinity and Its Bearing on the Relationship of Men and Women,”
Sydney Anglican Diocesan Doctrine Commission Report

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1999 (Spring) – Craig Keener, “Is Subordination Within the Trinity Really Heresy? A Study of John 5:18 in Context” Trinity Journal TRINJ 20:1 PDF

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Book 2000 – Loren Cunningham, David Joel Hamilton and Janice Rogers, Why Not Women?: A Fresh Look at Scripture on Women in Missions, Ministry, and Leadership (quote: “There is no hierarchy within the Trinity.”)

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2001 (Spring) – 8 articles and an annotated bibliography “central to a biblical understanding of gender issues and roles” The Journal for Biblical Manhood and Womanhood. PDF

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2001 – John MacArthur, “Reexamining the Eternal Sonship of Christ,” Journal for Biblical Manhood and Womanhood 6, no. 1, pp 21-23. See above for PDF of complete journal issue.

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Book 2001 (1 Feb) – Alvin F. Kimel, ed., This Is My Name Forever: The Trinity & Gender Language for God

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Book 2002 – Roger E. Olson and Christopher A. Hall, The Trinity. pp 52-53, 106-07, 101, 114.

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2002 – Peter R. Schemm, “Kevin Giles’ The Trinity and Subordinationism,” Journal of Biblical Manhood and Womanhood 7, no. 2, pp 67-78.

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Book 2002 – Wayne Grudem, ed. Biblical Foundations for Manhood and Womanhood, pp 148, 157-8, 243, 250.

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Book 2002 – Kevin Giles, The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate

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Book 2002 – John Frame, The Doctrine of God: A Theology of Lordship, pp pp 719-22.

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Book 2002 – Robin Vogsland, Rediscovering the Trinity: The Biblical Basis for Proclaiming the Deity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (self-published) PDF.

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Book 2002 (15 Oct) – Bernard Cooke and Gary Macy, A History of Women and Ordination: The ordination of women in medieval context Vol 1.

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2003 (29 April) – Kim Pettit, “A Book Review: The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate

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2003 (August) – Duncan Reid, “The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate,” The Australian Theological Book Review On Line: www.atbr.openbook.com. au

2003 – Robert Letham, “Kevin Giles, The Trinity and Subordinationism,” Westminster Theological Journal 65, no. 2, pp 383-87.

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2003 – Gerald Bray, “Review Article, The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate,” The Churchman 117, no. 3, pp 267-71.

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Book 2003 (1 Sept) – Colin E. Gunton, Father, Son and Holy Spirit: Toward a Fully Trinitarian Theology. p 39.

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2004 – Baddeley, Mark, “The Trinity and Subordinationism” Reformed Theological Review. 63.1: pp 29–42.

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Book 2004 – Robert Letham, The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship, see pp 175-181, 389-404.

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2004 – Max Davidson, “The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate by Kevin N. Giles,” Evangelical Review of Theology 28, no. 3, pp 287-88.

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2004 (April) – Robert Doyle, “Are We Heretics? A Review of The Trinity and Subordinationism by Kevin Giles” The Briefing 307, 11-19.

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2004 (28 May) – “Father, Son and duelling bishops,” Sydney Morning Herald

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2004 (31 July) – Kevin Giles, “The Doctrine of the Trinity and Subordination”

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2004 (Sept) – J. Scott Horrell, “Toward a Biblical Model of the Social Trinity: Avoiding Equivocation of Nature and Order” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

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2004 (18 November) – Michael J. Svigel, “Power in Unity, Diversity in Rank: Subordination and the Trinity in the Fathers of the Early Church” (A Paper Presented to the 56th Annual Meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society; 71 pages) PDF

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2004 (Fall) – V. Hiebert, “Kevin Giles. The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate,” Didaskalia, pp 63-65.

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Book 2005 (11 Apr) – Leonardo Boff (Author), Paul Burns (Translator), Trinity and Society, p 230. (God is both father and mother).

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Book 2005 – Bruce Ware, Father, Son and Holy Spirit: Relationships, Roles, and Relevance

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Book 2005 (25 July) – Ronald W. Pierce, ed., Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity Without Hierarchy 

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2005 – Kevin Giles, “The Doctrine of the Trinity and Subordination” God’s Word to Women

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2005 – Stephen Dray, “The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate,” Evangelical Quarterly 77, no. 1,  pp 94-95.

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2005 Thomas Thompson, Review of Kevin Giles’ 2002 book, Calvin Theological Journal, pp 134-137. PDF

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2005 (June) – “Women in the Life of the Church” A Position Paper Approved by the General Synod of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church PDF

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2005–2006 – John W. Kleinig, “The subordination of the exalted Son to the Father” Lutheran Theological Review. 18.1: pp 41–52. PDF

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Book 2006 – Kevin Giles, Jesus and the Father

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2006 (1 Mar) – Kevin Giles, “The Eternal Subordination of the Son of God and the Permanent Subordination of Women”

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2006 (2 Mar) – Ben Witherington “The Eternal Subordination of Christ and of Women” : a re-post of Kevin Giles’ essay: “The Eternal Subordination of the Son of God and the Permanent Subordination of Women” Ben Witherington blog

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2006 (Autumn) – Phillip Cary, “The New Evangelical Subordinationism: Reading Inequality Into the Trinity” Priscilla Papers Vol. 20.4 PDF

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2006 (27 Oct) – Kevin Giles, Chapter 19 – “The Subordination of Christ and The Subordination of Women” Part 3 of Discovering Biblical Equality, A Book Discussion. Kruse Kronicle

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2006 (27 Oct) – Rebecca Groothuis, Chapter 18 (Part 1) – “‘Equal In Being, Unequal In Role’: Exploring The Logic Of Woman’s Subordination” Part 3 of Discovering Biblical Equality, A Book Discussion. Kruse Kronicle

Note: For more info on the above two entries see Kruse Kronicle 5 part series index

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2006 (3 Nov) – Michael Bird, “Functional Subordination within the Trinity” Euangelizomai blog

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Book 2007 (16 August) – Graham A. Cole, He Who Gives Life: The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, see p 90.

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2007 – Michael J. Lakey, dissertation: “Image and Glory of God, Glory of Man: Evangelicals and AND Paul’s Hermeneutics of Gender in I Corinthians 11:2-16” PDF

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Book 2007 – Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, The Trinity: Global Perspectives, pp 176, 226, 283 fn63. 

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2007 (22 June) – Brian ?,“On the life of the Trinity, mutual submission and gender…(excerpts from Why Not Women?)” just an apprentice blog 

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Book 2008 – Michael Ward,
Planet Narnia. (Quote: “Lewis accepted the Nicene and Athanasian Creeds with their insistence on the co-eternity of the Son with the Father, but believed that the essential equality of divine being among the Persons of the Trinity was not incompatible with an ordering, even a kind of hierarchy, therein. Obviously, Christ was subject to the Father as man; but Lewis also thought he was to the Father as God. This position is distinguishable from the heresy of subordinationism; its locus classicus is 1 Cor. 15:27-28. Within the Godhead, the Father has a primacy, He is the First Person of the Trinity. The Father is (so to speak) golden, as the Son, the Second Person, is silver. Lewis thought that ‘we do not disparage silver by distinguishing it from gold’ and that, in any case, ‘comparative evaluations of essentially different excellences are…senseless.’ (This is not to imply that Lewis thought the Son and the Father were not of the same divine essence; it is to imply that the begetting Father, qua begetter, enacts divinity in a manner essentially opposite from and reciprocal to that of the begotten Son.) Nevertheless, because the Son is perfectly silver he is also, within the mystery of the Trinity, perfectly golden because he is utterly receptive to that higher (but no more divine) light coming forth from the First Person, ‘the Father “with rayes direct” shining full on the Son,’ as Lewis quotes Milton in his Preface. The Son, unlike the witch, does not deny what is above him, but accepts it fully, with eternal filial submissiveness” p 32.

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2008 (23 Feb) – Phil Gons, “Hierarchy Does Not Necessitate Opposition” PhilGons

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2008 (2 Mar) – MzEllen, “Craig Keener on Subordination” For the Life of Me.

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2008 (8 Oct) – The Henry Center Trinity Debate b/ Ware-Grudem and Yandell-McCall “Do relations of authority and submission exist eternally among the Persons of the Godhead?”

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2008 (30 Oct) – Bob Allen, “Trinity debate trickles down to gender roles”

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2008 (Winter) – Bruce Ware, “Equal in Essence, Distinct in Roles: Eternal Functional Authority and Submission among the Essentially Equal Divine Persons of the Godhead” Journal for Biblical Manhood and Womanhood
Vol 13:2 

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Book 2009 – Millard Erickson,
Who’s Tampering with the Trinity?: An Assessment of the Subordination Debate

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2009 (Spring) – Steven B. Cowan, “The Metaphysics Of Subordination: A Response To Rebecca Merrill Groothuis” Journal: Journal for Biblical Manhood and Womanhood Vol 14:1

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Book 2009 – Sarah Sumner, Men and Women in the Church: Building Consensus on Christian Leadership (see footnote, p178) 

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2009 – Steven D. Boyer, “Contending for Nicene Trinitarianism in an egalitarian age” Pro Ecclesia vol 18, no. 3: pp 255-272.

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Book 2010 (10 March) – Thomas McCall, Which Trinity? Whose Monotheism? Philosophical and Systematic Theologians on the Metaphysics of Trinitarian Theology

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Book 2010 – Nancy Ann Hedberg, Women, Men, and the Trinity: What Does It Mean to Be Equal?.

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2010 (8 August) – Geoff Thomas, “The Reality of Divine Sonship” (quote: “There is that mutual outgoingness between the God the Father and God the Son…) 

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2011 (26 Jan) – Dave Miller, “The Eternal Subordination of the Son Is the Historic Doctrine of the Church”

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2011 – Bruce McCormack, Kantzer Lecture Series, lecture 1: “Is the Reformation Over? Reflections on the Doctrine of God in Evangelical Theology” (In this lecture he begins by critiquing Bruce Ware’s social trinitarian theory)

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2011 (Autumn) – D. Eryl Davies, “Review article: Trinitarian Theology” Foundations No.61  

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2011 (25 November) – Keith L. Johnson, “SubordinationismThe Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization

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“An Evangelical Statement on the Trinity”

2011 (Oct) – Nancy Hedberg, “An Evangelical Statement on the Trinity” Part 1, background

2011 (Oct) – Stan Gundry, “An Evangelical Statement on the Trinity” Part 2

2011 (Oct) – William David Spencer, “An Evangelical Statement on the Trinity” Part 3

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.2011 (Dec) – Bob Allen, “Scholars say some evangelicals are tinkering with the Trinity” article

(direct to Bob Allen article, dead link?)

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2012 – Fred Sanders and Kevin Giles, joint lecture: “The Trinity and Gender: The Recent Debate Among Evangelicals” hosted at Biola 

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Book 2012 – Kevin Giles, The Eternal Generation of the Son: Maintaining Orthodoxy in Trinitarian Theology (Giles mention how Eternal Generation relates to the error of ESS)

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Book 2012 – Wayne Grudem, Evangelical Feminism and Biblical Truth: An Analysis of More Than 100 Disputed Questions (864 pages)

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Book 2012 – Dennis W. Jowers and H. Wayne Grudem, eds., The New Evangelical Subordinationism?: Perspectives on the Equality of God the Father and God the Son

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Book 2012 – Gordon D. Fee, Ronald Pierce and Rebecca Groothuis, Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity Without Hierarchy, see pp 19 and 335. 

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Book 2012 – Ellis, Brannon, Calvin, Classical Trinitarianism, and the Aseity of the Son. OUP

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2012 (4 Sept) – Denny Burk, “The New Evangelical Subordinationism?” (includes ToC of The New Evangelical Subordinationism?)  Denny Burk blog

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Book 2013 – Russell Sharrock, The Triunity of God, pp 98-101.

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Book 2013 (29 Aug) – Sarah Coakley, God, Sexuality, and the Self: An Essay ‘On the Trinity’.

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Book 2013 – David Beale, “The Doctrinal Development of the Eternal Generation of Christ” Historical Theology In-Depth: Themes and Contexts of Doctrinal Development since the First Century, 2 vols. (BJU Press, 2:142-170)

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2013 – Stefan T. Lindblad, “‘Eternally Begotten of the Father’ An Analysis of the Second London Confession of Faith’s Doctrine of the Eternal Generation of the Son”

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2013 – Wayne Grudem, “Biblical Evidence for the Eternal Submission of the Son to the Father” PDF

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2013 – Uri Brito, The Trinitarian Father (Book Description: “A theological examination of the relationship of the Trinity to fatherhood.”)

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2013 (15 March) – Scott Swain and Michael Allen, “The Obedience of the Eternal Son” International Journal of Systematic Theology Vol 15, Issue 2.

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Book 2013 – Larry Crabb, Fully Alive: A Biblical Vision of Gender That Frees Men and Women to Live Beyond Stereotypes (affirms ESS)

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2013 (17 July) – Caryn Rivadeneira, “Gender and the Trinity: An Interview with Psychologist Larry Crabb”

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2013 (8 August) – Fred Sanders, “You, Me, and the Heavenly Three?: Why the Trinity can’t tell us about gender. A response to Larry Crabb”

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2013 (14 August) – Justin Taylor, “Should We Connect the Trinity and Gender?

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Book 2013 (5 Nov) – Sarah Bessey, Jesus Feminist: An Invitation to Revisit the Bible’s View of Women.

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2013 (18 Nov) – Andrew Sandlin – “Subordinationist Patriarchy and Twisted Trinitarianism” Christian Culture

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2014 (15 Aug) – R. C. Sproul, Ligonier blog, “What’s the difference between the ontological and the economic Trinity?”

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2015

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2015 (8 April) – Peter Leithart, “Gender Arianism

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2015 (9 April) – Peter Leithart, “Gender Arianism, Again

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2015 (18 April)  – Fr. Steve Macias, “Is the Trinity Egalitarian?” 

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2015 – RC Sproul, Jr., “Feminism” on Jesus Changes Everything podcast (quoted in link above defending SS)

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Book 2015 – Bruce A. Ware and John Starke, One God in Three Persons: Unity of Essence, Distinction of Persons, Implications for Life

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2015 (8 May) – Fred Sanders, “Things Eternal: Sonship, Generation, Generatedness” on The Scriptorium Daily

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2015 (18 May) – Jared Moore, review of One God in Three Persons “The Complementarians Win” (Moore writes in favor of the ESS position) 

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2015 (22 May) – Rachel Miller, “Continuing Down This Path, Complementarians Lose”

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2015 (22 May) – Steve Holmes, Review of One God in Three Persons

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2015 (28 May) – Rachel Miller, “Does the Son eternally submit to the authority of the Father?”

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2015 (31 May) – Alastair Roberts, “The eternal subordination of the Son and social trinitarianism”

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2015 (1 June) – Stephen Holmes, Response to Holmes’ Review by Fred Sanders

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2015 (3 July) – William Craig, “Subordination of God the Son to the Father”

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(NOTE: Based on the current timeline it appears that the ESS debate was well under way when several bloggers in mid 2015 and early 2016 decided to enter the conversation.)

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2015 (17 Aug) – Aimee Byrd, “John Piper’s advice for women in the workforce”

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2015 (25 Aug) – Aimee Byrd, “Recovering from biblical manhood and womanhood”

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2015 (2 Sept) – Rachel Miller and Valerie Hobbs, “‘The Subordinate Place of Supreme Honor’: The Wedding Exhortations of Douglas Wilson”

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‪2015 (17 Sept) – Denny Burk, “Thin Complementarianism?” ‬

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2015 (7 Oct) – Rachael Starke, “When submission becomes sinful”

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2015 – D. Glenn Butner, Jr., “Eternal Functional Subordination and the Problem of the Divine Will” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

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.2016

[forthcoming] later]

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The confession of the Trinity throbs at the heart of the Christian religion: every error results from, or upon deeper reflection may be traced to, a wrong view of this doctrine.

Herman Bavinck

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